Saturday, September 21, 2013


America is a country that began with mass genocide, but it persevered with idealism that still survives. The present era pursues foreign genocide to provide isolation for the solidarity of American domestic idealism. As a country that was founded to pursue tolerance, this obvious hypocrisy created a schizophrenic mentality to pursue imperialism disguised as nationalism (starting with Africa and South America, moving into the World Wars, to the Asia Pacific and Middle East areas).

Capitalism provides us with a way of lowering quality for increasing quantities, facilitating economic growth. Technological advances have become a reduction in cost accompanied by a reduction in quality. Marketing and distribution networks help to create maximum demand for goods which must be low-quality due to natural scarcity of inputs.

"We only have the freedom we give ourselves through knowledge and discernment"

The main goal of government is stability. To pursue stability, it is necessary that a government workforce be focused on mediocrity. Any extremes would interfere, causing instability, which would compromise this fundamental purpose of government (some examples for policemen are here and here). Quality of media information within imperialism is reduced by the need for propaganda, in the pursuit of stability.

The main source of government stability is the Department of Defense (DOD), even if their actions are often offensive. DOD positions require both secrecy and mediocrity. The government has gradually privatized DOD contractors and subcontractors to increase competition and isolate them from the requirements of government stability. Privatizing defense makes it more volatile through economic competition and reduced judicial controls. Privatized defense requires mediocrity for internal stability, though it is impossible to enforce effectively without government oversight. Secrecy is pursued with background checks and follow-ups for the "nearly 5 million federal workers holding secret or top-secret security clearance" (as described here).

With inflation (that the Federal Reserve attempts to pursue at 2.5%/year using politically favorable metrics) the quality of government issued monies is reduced. Inflation provides the natural pursuit of "substitution of goods" to maintain the same standard of living, through technological advancements (as mentioned above, "a reduction in cost accompanied by a reduction in quality"). Inflation affects all goods and services, reducing their quality and effectiveness. The reduction in quality of government services, by necessity must affect many different aspects of people's lives. From limited postal services that are moving towards privatization to DOD workers with short retirements (due to heart-attack or other health problems that could be induced for security cost reasons), there are many opportunities to reduce government expenses on security and stability. Unfortunately, that means that America is in the process of declining quality due to the expansion of credit through inflation. However, a quality that begins and ends with genocide must also be questionable.

Saturday, March 23, 2013

Death of a World

"After God died, Art died, and without it we were only left with War and Sex. Without Art we were unable to digest and without God we were unable to forgive. We were only left with animals. Would we eventually need to eat each other?" I think this is a good description of our current point in history, and how we can have a silent whimper. The surreal discontinuity only reflects our own meaningless existence within society as slaves for exploitation (a timeless occupation). We are left only with our dreams for escapism, and that may be the most important part of our perception, to achieve salvation. Of course, a salvation without God may be confusing, but the Lord works in mysterious ways.

Monday, January 16, 2012


Taoism (in addition to Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism) is the pursuit of "becoming one with the Tao" which is interpreted as harmonizing one's will with nature. When you consider that nature is God's image, pursuing the Tao is harmonizing your will with God's image. This idea is consistent with Baruch Spinoza's conception of God.

The oneness of creation mentioned in the "Destruction" section describes how profoundly large and cohesive creation (which includes the terms: nature and the universe) is as God's image. Community acting to help reduce the fragmentation (evil) within God's image is mentioned within the "Purification" section, which must occur with individuals exhibiting humility as mentioned within the "Humility" section. The combination of these ideas shows a reality that can endure anything that might be seen temporarily as a problem. In this way, becoming self-less (achieving humility) is liberation from suffering. Both physically and mentally, there will always be pain of various forms, within our mortal existence as we gradually decay and die. The knowledge of our oneness within God's image provides us with the conceptual framework to understand suffering as mentioned within the "Happiness" section.

With us being only our perception and our will, as mentioned within the "Starting" section, the Tao is making our thoughts harmonize within God's image, as mentioned within the "Thoughts" section, while being supported by the single greatest (and only) virtue, humility, and our individual cohesiveness known as community. So, thought is our mental cohesiveness while community is our physical cohesiveness, with both providing simple evidence of oneness within God's image, despite fragmentation (evil) that separates individual entities in both time and space. The control of thoughts, with our will, is critical to harmonizing our will with God's will, because it controls everything we do as an individual.

The most important way to control our thoughts is to not encourage or retain fear, since fear is the perception of imaginary fragmentation (evil). Obviously, most people would consider fear a natural reaction that aids temporary survival in many ways within creation. However, fear is a type of pride, since it attempts to label a part of creation as a part of fragmentation (evil), which is also ignoring the authority of God. Instead, it is important to pursue humility, which is the path by which your will comes into harmony with God's will.

Community is the external guide of your perception, and your perception guides your will. Community combined with the humility of individuals helps to support the effort to harmonize yourself with God's will (as mentioned within the "Friends"). Harmonizing with God's image is equivalent to harmonizing with the cohesive presence within God's image, which is God's will (i.e., active purification, described within the "Purification" section).

Sunday, May 30, 2010


It is amazing that any two people can agree on a single idea with their own unique differences. Both persons have their own cells with unique mutations that constantly are dieing and being replaced in complex biological processes. It is impossible for two people to share the same experiences throughout their lifetime and it is unlikely that they will perceive the same event in the same way.

Through abstraction people are able to make simpler concepts from their experiences so that two people may share similar concepts despite completely different experiences. The movement of people towards a common understanding of their existence is evidence of creation's (God's image's) natural tendency towards oneness (despite the fragmentation of evil).

Disturbing creation in a way that alters its movement towards oneness can create backlash. The backlash has been called Karma in the past and helps to explain why societies can remain cohesive despite the differences within individual people. Based on its nature, Karma must exist within time and must be created based on the interaction of individual wills within creation (God's image).

Many societies avoid occult teachings and that tendency is meant to prevent disturbing creation. Occult activities often aim to impose a person's will over creation in some way and runs contrary to humility. An occult magician described a backlash from occult activities as "a hibernating bear that scratches an itch without waking up". Such backlashes that occur are not profound, but merely convey a movement away from the oneness of God's image, towards the fragmentation exterior to it.

When creation is disturbed it is often the case that the backlash reaction is perceived as being not as strong as the original action. Karma can be criticized for not having equal reactions for all negative actions. However, the lack of force in the reaction shows how large and cohesive creation (God's image) really is, despite its previous (i.e., previous to the action) fragmentation. Part of creation's stability can be perceived when an evil action does not create an absolutely evil effect, but instead also creates good effects. Evil, in essence, is tending towards non-being ("God is not the author of evil, because He is not the cause of tending to non-being" Augustine of Hippo), and in that sense evil is fatally flawed. To explain that good effects can come from evil actions, Augustine of Hippo's says "Since God is the highest good, He would not allow any evil to exist in His works, unless His omnipotence and goodness were such as to bring good even out of evil" (i.e., God is growing through active purification).

With fragmentation (evil) in God's image (creation) the movement towards oneness is never stopped but does seem to be changed in very small ways. That complex process by which creation (God's image) changes can be seen as God growing since it makes sense both in the microcosm and the macrocosm. So any "evil" actions that might cause destruction are actually just opportunities for a rebirth and this dichotomy has been represented by the essence of Shiva. Despite our biological existence that is always in a state of decay, we can actively create oneness as our perception changes.


These writings are minimal, lack specific examples, tedious details, and formal justification. The contents structure is meant to avoid specific opinion or perception based justification, because such content is meaningless to everyone but a small segment of those that share a similar perception.

In a very basic way, words that make an idea's description more specific also make the idea less true. Words are always very imperfect and quantity does not improve their quality, but instead only makes ideas more obscure.

People's perceptions always differ, so their agreement on a single source of information is inconsistent and random. To address this problem, the content is as simple as possible, it is as open-ended as possible, and as absolute as possible.

The content itself is not random but has been created in a makeshift hierarchy where the older entries are used to create newer entries. The old entries form a basis for exploring other abstract ideas. The goal of the content is to break down reality into abstract ideas about truth that can be useful for many people with their own unique perceptions. A person's perception is a lens that they see the world through and it dictates the application of the ideas contained herein.

Limiting the content to abstract ideas about truth helps to keep the ideas timeless and widely applicable for anyone that might take the time to read these writings.

Thursday, January 28, 2010


Time is the most profound fragmentation of God's image within creation.

Wednesday, January 27, 2010


To "live in the moment" is the act of perceiving your will and is a practice which can help guide your will. The practice takes the form of meditation, prayer (i.e., focused thought), silence, and contemplation. Through introspection we can understand both our conscious intentions and our unconscious intentions, such that we can guide our will in the best possible way at a single point in time.

Modern society exists consumed within distractions that prevent introspection and causes our will to have little focus or guidance. Our lack of focus makes our individual will within modern society weak by comparison to people in the past and is an unfortunate side-effect of modern "improvements". Media control with the aid of pharmaceuticals and statistics can provide guidance, but such guidance does not guide the individual. Instead, such broad forms of manipulation guide groups of people in ways that conform to previous knowledge of propriety. Marketing provides distraction that is perpetuated with materialism. The distractions we experience help to shape our wills for us and fill a void within our weak volition.

The problem with the distractions we all face on a daily basis is that we do not retain control over ourselves. Our will can be impacted in ways that appear subtle but accumulate over time. The fact we are losing control of our will means that we are losing what is most valuable to ourselves.

Creativity can help shield us from distractions by actualizing our will, giving it substance or form that can be perceived. With creative self-expression we can be introspective in a way that helps us avoid distractions. Creative self-expression is only perpetuated with optimism and contentment, but ultimately must be a product of our will if it helps to guide our will. Creativity does take place naturally within creation as reproduction which makes a part of our will immortal within time. However, any artistic endeavors can help guide our will in a way that impacts us as an individual and influences the perceptions of other people.

Thursday, July 30, 2009


Tom Barbalet's idea that intelligence should be measured by survival is a much better approach than previous ones. The fact the idea can be applied to more complex systems, shows that it scales well to represent a physical context. Time naturally applies survival as a metric to gauge intelligence because age is able to represent perseverance within physical creation. Unfortunately, quality is obscured by the scale when this idea is applied because often quality is unique at any point in time. Education can gauge intelligence in a more accurate way if it combines a search for survival and quality by pursuing unbounded problems (problems that are considered unsolvable but have intermediate solutions). Creating proper testing that uses unbounded problems is a difficult task, but it would be a great benefit to society. Such testing would be able to gauge creativity in addition to previous knowledge (memorization).

Interactions within society depends on rules and are an important guiding force within our lives. However, without breaking rules there is no innovation. An interesting example can be found in a traffic study that found an optimal speed on a dense freeway with 40% of the traffic breaking rules. Often rules are broken because the rules were formed by ignorance. Rule-breaking should be integrated, in a controlled way, with education. Solving unbounded problems would help motivate students to create a complete solution and make the problem bounded (which could be considered breaking a rule).

Unfortunately, unbounded problems are generally buried in specific complexity that is not applicable to simple studies. However, I think it could still be possible to form testing based on unbounded problems, as global knowledge becomes more categorized and accessible.

Thursday, June 4, 2009


The idea that "We have a natural physical understanding of good and evil through our understanding of physical joy and suffering." from the "Thoughts" entry mentions our physical connection to our perception of duality within creation. The basic perception of joy and suffering gives us a reference point, such that we might understand good and evil despite any mental limitations. Without the context that our physical body provides, we would be unable to understand these concepts easily. Then, it is possible that good and evil are concepts modeled on our experiences, not necessarily definite metaphysical reality. So, good and evil relate to change within creation and time that is an effect (i.e., joy and suffering are effects), not necessarily a cause (e.g., someone's will). Our will is free to choose its direction during our life within creation and can not be considered good or evil. Good and evil are effects that we believe exist (based on our perception of joy and suffering), but they represent the change within God's image. When God's fragmentation is reduced by someone's will (that represents the will of God), we perceive it as a good effect in whatever capacity we are able to. The person's will is not good since the cause and effect are separate (the will is instead acting to create a good effect). The idea that good and evil are related to human pleasure and pain is an idea initially developed by Baruch Spinoza.

Life should be the pursuit of a long-term "good" state of being (many good effects throughout a lifetime), which is described as happiness or contentment. This pursuit of happiness is not hedonism, but is instead the pursuit of harmonizing your will with God's will as good effects manifest, such that we perceive good effects (using joy as a reference point) within creation and time.

Research has shown evidence that long-lasting happiness is found with intrinsic goals (e.g., friendship, health, enlightenment) rather than extrinsic goals (e.g., power, wealth, fame) when studying people over a certain length of time. Notice that the intrinsic goals reduce the fragmentation of God's image within creation and the extrinsic goals increase the fragmentation of God's image within creation. The most important intrinsic goal discussed in previous posts is relationships (i.e., friendship) because they focus and strengthen people's wills. The most important extrinsic goal discussed in previous posts is power since it is the antithesis of humility.

Pursuing a lifetime of happiness is pursuing God's will. When people pursue suffering, they generally have been persuaded that the "ends justify the means" in some way.

Health is connected to happiness in a metaphysical way. Shamanism is generally tasked with restoring health within a tribal culture but often is unable to cure physical illness. Shaman often restore metaphysical health by helping the person accept their illness, so that they are able to experience some happiness and peace. Western medicine is able to pursue blunt methods by which physical illnesses are removed or suppressed but often happiness is not a factor in the decisions that are made.

Thursday, May 21, 2009


Everyone has their own unique limitations for both will and perception. Respecting limitations is very important and a frequent source of anger and misunderstanding. Everyone must pursue their own path that reduces fragmentation and seeks harmony with God's will, according to their own capacity. Any positive or negative pursuit of their will is largely decoupled from their religious background or lack thereof.

A person's life experience does form their perception that guides their will. Normally, a person does not pursue fragmentation, actively, in all aspects of life unless twisted to that end. More commonly, people do pursue community as part of survival, both physically and metaphysically. If a person is twisted to pursue fragmentation actively, they generally do it for an altered sense of community or fulfillment that is not generally completely ill will, just misguided.

Understanding the limitations of others in relation to you can help promote a sense of peace so that fragmentation does not develop or grow. Being supportive of others helps reduce fragmentation and compensates for the limitations of others. Support can then help compensate for both physical and mental ills that would otherwise cause ostracism.


I am unable to forget the 25th saying of the Gospel of Thomas, an apocryphal gospel, which is "Jesus said, 'Love your friends like your own soul, protect them like the pupil of your eye.'" (Translated by Stephen Patterson and Marvin Meyer). The perception of a person that guides their will is formed by their surroundings. The most influential part of a person's surroundings is their friends.

For the sake of your perception and its influence on others though your will, protection of your perception is necessary. To protect your perception would be to willfully guide it on its path that you determine to be best. So, to guide your perception you would need to choose your friends wisely.

The first part of the saying shows that you must love your friends as if they are your own soul since it is relationships that makes us part of a larger whole that reduces fragmentation of God in God's image. So, your soul is very close to your friend's and comes from the same source, despite fragmentation within creation and time that separates you from them.


Absolute truth should not exist within time because absolute truth requires perfection. Perfection should not exist within creation because of the fragmentation of evil within God's image. Ein Sof (God) is absolute truth outside of time, but we only can hope to perceive God's image within time. The changing substance of God's image can not be absolute truth within time.

Recursively, these statements can not be completely true since I write this within time... nor can anything be completely true with the inaccurate thoughts that languages convey. The mere pursuit of language and forming statements can be a type of search for truth, though it will always result in slight truths that can never be completely correct.

The idea that absolute truth does not exist comes from postmodernism, in addition to the focus on the perceived world being subjective. Absolute truth as a concept (Ein Sof) still exists outside of time, just not in a way we may ever perceive. Instead, absolute truth is only something we participate in, as a fragment of God's image within time.

Monday, May 11, 2009


"Some for renown, on scraps of learning dote, And think they grow immortal as they quote."
- Edward Young

Education teaches memorization and minutiae that is then quickly forgotten. However, teaching repetitive memory techniques helps create a productive work force, filled with specialized people that are unable to utilize their mind completely. Our current society depends on specialized skill and encourages specialization with illusions of security, whether it be welfare or a retirement plan. People that depend on memorization to survive will neglect creativity and the improvements it can provide for society.

Creativity is only utilized by an increasingly limited number of individuals when you consider the amount of ingenuity required to trap wild game and the effort required to visit McDonalds. Art has become mass produced to the point that value is obscure. Business is often like a herd of cattle trampling single creative ideas by replication or legal suppression (utilizing money, otherwise known as earthly power).

For society to advance as a whole, intelligence needs better testing to determine a mind's capabilities. Education needs to strengthen the capabilities present in the individual's mind that are found through testing. The capabilities found will likely require more individual teaching than what we currently have. Creativity is one thing education has been unable to focus on seriously because it lacks a metric to measure it with.

The only serious attempts to measure creativity that I have found is within the research of Dr. E. Paul Torrance. The results have shown that creativity has been decreasing since 1990 which is likely to coincide with the use of ADHD medication. We are diagnosing the most creative segment of children with ADHD for the worst effects. Conformity comes with a high price.


People are naturally self-centered from a survival point of view. Only our relationships allow us to transcend our base self and use our will for others. By doing so, we become integrated into a larger whole that is stronger.

Saturday, May 9, 2009


Lack of privacy will cause society to encourage trustlessness as an admirable quality in people (i.e., total information will provide more fear than insight because of the limitations of human understanding). Lack of trust in society will cause a reduction in the quality and number of human relationships, causing society to deteriorate.

Artificial environments will allow relationships to form with controlled privacy, but will depend on the public's ignorance of their exposure for survival. The control of privacy will become the governing force for the world.

Friday, May 8, 2009


In the remarks by Ambassador Joseph A. Mussomeli to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, that refer to the Cambodian Genocide, I found a timeless reference to Thomas Merton and his view on the individuals responsible for Nazi war crimes: "labeling the killers as insane or inherently evil wrongly permit us the comfort of believing that normal people, ordinarily decent people, could never commit these crimes. That it is only the insane and the cruel that could do so. But the real horror of these crimes, as Merton pointed out, is that most perpetrators are neither insane nor pathologically cruel people.".

Humans generally do what they perceive as correct at a certain point in time. The idea that the ends justifies the means has wide application outside of Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, but is mainly described as a tool for politicians because a lack of integrity can compensate for a lack of skill with diplomacy and leadership. The Lex Talionis, despite being the world's oldest law, was able to limit the power of amoral behavior, but that limit is now absent in current times. So, the notion that the victor writes history and controls reality ("The victor will never be asked if he told the truth." - Adolf Hitler) has become persistent support for amoral reasoning.

Self-sacrifice is one act that can always be recognized in unadulterated history, since the act itself can have long standing impact on human relationships. Victor Frankle recognized self-sacrifice by saying "The best of us did not survive", when he recounted fellow prisoner deaths in the concentration camp due to starvation. Humility can provide direction that represents God's will, actualized as self-sacrifice and a transcendence of basic survival instinct. I think Victor Frankle was one of the prisoners that sacrificed self for the greater good (Ad maiorem Dei gloriam) by his research and writing, not just the prisoners that died due to starvation because they had offered their food to other prisoners.


Fear is everyone's worst enemy, whether they realize it, or not. Fear is only conquered by focused thought that is supported by the affirmation of past success that can be part of a person's confidence. Past success is only judged by a person's perception and a person's perception determines if they find positive qualities in negative events (attitude is 80% to 90% of success, depending on who you talk to).

Fear is the most effective tool available to manipulate people when you consider the cost. That is why there is motivation in business to provide an unstable environment that encourages fear. Encouragement of fear is not often intentional unless it is within higher levels of management. Usually apathy unintentionally encourages fear through lack of communication and indecision.

The management hierarchy in a business defines a general attitude from the top down that guides the workers to accomplish tasks. So, a business contains an attitude that influences workers and their ability to accomplish work.

The management hierarchy is a network of filters that allow a CEO to manage with a human consciousness that has limited perception and focus. Blame in a management hierarchy propagates down the hierarchy, but Reward propagates up the hierarchy. The personal relationships between the coworkers that brought the company together define its outcome.

A business is legally and realistically an individual entity with a lifespan and a health. The health of a business is slow moving for large companies where morale is not easily communicated or shared.


Humility is the one virtue from which all other virtues flow. Humility allows society to remain connected by having no one stand out as being inherently better. If pride does occur, it creates conflict within society and detracts from a consciousness of God and a focus on God. The Catholic church was unable to appreshiate humility because of their long history of corruption, despite the Desert Fathers (so instead, they focused on faith, hope, and charity, the three theological virtues, which was an easier practice).

So, a prerequisite for harmonizing your will with God's will is learning humility. Doing so increases the interconnectedness of people within society and reduces fragmentation (evil).

Determining a person's character requires meek and humble approach. Pride with ill intent will be shown by the person in the form of happiness and surprise, usually with a smirk.


Thoughts are the imprint of the will. Prayer is focused thought.

Thoughts are very important within creation and it is hard to grasp how important it is to control your own thought. Thought forms the main interconnections between people that remain within God's image (God's mirror existence inside of time), despite fragmentation. Remember that the only thing separating people within God's image, from being one, is fragmentation (evil) which is "tending to non-being".

Thoughts as a form of existence allow us to achieve more truth than is capable with crude objects, even when used as symbols. The main purpose of symbols is to unite a community so that the thought of its members takes on a more homogeneous form or existence and is more powerful through the use of symbols.

With homogeneous thought, power is distributed among those that hold it in relation to its intensity, insofar as the thought's existence represents the will of an entity that is hopefully completely of God (but since absolute truth does not exist within creation, nothing is completely of God). Facets of God's fragmentation that are spiritual are called angels and only contain a static will that tends towards positive or negative. Negative angels are also called demons. These angels are the only persistent connection (not temporary, but enduring throughout time) I see between the God outside of time and the God's image, inside of time. The angels must be static though they can take on a form. The angels must contain a part of God's duality (God with the fragmentation of evil) to be able to take on a form.

There is one more connection that could be classified as angels but is called ghosts. They have static wills and are attached to both the static and the dynamic, i.e., the static God or not-God and the dynamic mix of the two ... to be clearer they are attached to God both in its form outside of time and its form within time (or attached to not-God which is possibly in both places but definitely within time).

So, thoughts take on a form through memory and an existence that is part of the duality with God that takes place within time. The highest goal then is to have our thoughts, their form and existence, represent God by being in harmony with God's will.

We have a natural physical understanding of good and evil through our understanding of physical joy and suffering.


To be holy in all religions is to bring yourself into harmony with God's will, where your will is God's will, as much as possible. It is obvious that people can influence other people through dialogue, both heard and ignored, touch, gestures and recorded thought.

I do not know how decoupled thoughts may influence other people except in that thoughts can take on an existence of their own, perpetuated by their memory. It is possible our existence within time is contained within the thoughts or mental/spiritual power of God outside of time.

The existence of thoughts, that are perpetuated by memory occurs best through community influence. Community can encourage strengths and cushion weaknesses through a common purpose that helps to focus the will of its members. Through community, it is possible for people to live in harmony with God's will, and help active purification.


The only thing that matters during our life is thought supported by community. All of our thought can be used to obtain harmony with God's will through community. God's existence that is active creatively sits outside of time where things are static and fate is determined. God's mirror existence that is passive is within time, as duality that is always active (i.e., the tension and friction within God within time is always active but God itself is not active within time). Evil is the absence of God and exists within time as fragmentation of God. Fragmentation of God is what keeps physical objects separate and our wills unique, i.e., giving us free will. I think creation is a method by which God grows (i.e., God is unified and made more whole within time) through our gradual purification. In that way, we are in God's image.

These thoughts depend on Kabbalistic thought where God exists as Ein Sof and also the image of Ein Sof within creation that some vocalize as "Yahweh", the Tetragrammaton. From these beliefs, God's will and the wills of the angels/demons have a singular direction but the wills of people within creation are free to choose their direction.

St. Thomas Aquinas in question XLIX of the Summa Theologica ("The cause of evil") determined, among other things, that God does not cause evil:
"On the contrary, Augustine says that, God is not the author of evil, because He is not the cause of tending to non-being. ... But in God there is no defect, but the highest perfection, as was shown above. Hence, the evil which consists in defect of action, or which is caused by defect of agent, is not reduced to God as to its cause."

There probably is a better Aquinas quote to see a logical Christian view, but Kabbalism has the concept that evil is fragmentation of God, since evil is not-God. A good source of basic Kabbalistic thought related to God, and its nature, is in God is a Verb , where God-ing can be seen as making God within time more whole by eliminating the fragmentation (evil).


I want to pursue simple truths from a single person and their random experiences, recorded within these random words.

I want to first assert we have nothing except our Will and our Perception. These two abstract entities are the only things to change during our lifetime.

Our perception controls our will, in general. We can direct our perception, but are not normally aware of that fact.